Evaluation of team cohesion: subjective and objective conesion
The aim of this study was to estimate the interaction between subjective and objective cohesion and its relationship with military team performance efficacy, perceived military stress, collective efficacy and team trust. Previous studies demonstrate, that cohesion plays an important role in team military performance, but it is still unclear, which cohesion (subjective or objective) is more useful in predicting it. In practice it is not always possible to evaluate military teams psychological characteristics fully, therefore it is important to know, what kind of cohesion relates not only to team performance, but also to perceived stress, collective efficacy and team trust. Besides, there is a lack of information about the structural validity of Sociometrical method in evaluating team cohesion. 160 military men of professional service took part in this research. 94.4 % (151) of them were males and 3.8 % (6) were females. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 37 with the mean age of 24.76 years. Participants were belonging to 28 teams (military sections). Aggregated results were used in a statistical analysis. Subjective cohesion was estimated by using Perceived Cohesion Scale (Bollen, Hoyle, 1990; Cronbach α = 0.85), objective cohesion was estimated by Sociometrical method. Three other questionnaires there presented to military persons: The Military Stress Questionnaire (Cronbach α – 0.92), The Questionnaire of the Perceived Military Collective Efficacy (Cronbach α – 0.93), The Intrateam Trust Scale (DeJong, Elfring, 2010; Cronbach α = 0.88). Team performance efficacy was based on the evaluations of the field training. The results indicate medium convergent validity between two measures. Both subjective and objective cohesion has significant correlations with perceived stress, collective efficacy, team trust and performance efficacy. Sociometrical question, concerning cognitive aspect of cohesion has an ability to predict team performance efficacy most precisely. It is worth noting, that sociometrical question, concerning emotional attraction of the group should be modified, because of its weak correlations to other variables.
Keywords: team, cohesion, performance efficacy, military psychology.