Interconnection Between Differentiation of Self, Self-Esteem and Teacher' Mental Health Indicators: Sense of Coherence, Subjective Happiness and Satisfaction with Life

Tija Kriščiūnaitė

Abstract


Education of creative and moral citizen of Lithuania is not an easy task. This task most often goes to teachers because of an intensive lifestyle, a lack of parents time for their children education. Teachers in their work experience different kinds of psychosocial stressors but factors which could help teachers to overcome stress and maintain mental health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher's mental health sustaining factors: interconnection between differentiation of self, self-esteem, sense of coherence, subjective happiness and satisfaction with life. In total there were 158 participants involved in this study, of which there were 19 mans and 139 women. The mean of participants age was 44.35 years, standart deviation - 11.035 years. Participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire, consisting of sociodemographic questions, Antonovsky (1987) Orientation to Life Questionnaire Short Version (13 item), Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem scale (RSE), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) by Dr. Sonja Lyubomirsky (1999) (Cronbach a = 0.728), The Satisfaction with Life Scale by Ed Diener (1985) (Cronbach a = 0.779) and Skowron, Friedlander (1998) Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI). The results of this study had shown that differentiation of self and self-esteem interface with teacher's mental health indicators: sense of coherence, subjective happiness and satisfaction with life positively. this research also was found that in participants group of higher level of differentiation of self self-esteem and mental health indicators was higher compared with lower level of differentiation of self group.

Keywords: Diferentiation of self, satisfaction with life, self-esteem, sense of coherence, subjective happiness.

 


Full Text:

PDF (Lietuvių)

References


Bowen M. Family Therapy in Clinical Practice. In: Library of Congress Catalog. Ed. J. Aronson. New York, 1978.

Cecen A. R. Sense of Coherence, Family Sense of Coherence and Self-Esteem in Predicting Life Satisfaction Among University Students. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 2008, Vol. 4, No.1, p. 19–30 [žiūrėta 2012 m. kovo 9 d.]. Prieiga per internetą: .

Cenkseven-Önder F., Sari M. The Quality of School Life and Burnout as Predictors of Subjective Well-Being among Teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 3, p. 1223–1236.

Chung H., Gale J. Comparing Self-differentiation and Psychological Well-being between Korean and European American Students. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2006, Vol. 28, p. 367–381.

Doef M. Teacher-Specific Quality of Work Versus General Quality of Work Assessment: a Comparison of Their Validity Regarding Burnout, Psychosomatic Well-Being and Job Satisfaction. Anxiety, Stress and Coping,2002, Vol. 15, No. 4, p. 327–344.

Elieson M., Rubin L. J. Differentiation of Self and Major Depressive Disorders: a Test of Bowen Theory Among Clinical, Traditional, And Internet Groups. Family Therapy, 2001, Vol. 28, No. 3, p. 1–19.

Furr R. M. Differentiating Happiness and Self-esteem. Individual Differences Research, 2005, Vol. 3, p. 105–129.

Gallagher M. W., Lopez Sh. J. Positive expectancies and mental health: Identifying the unique contributions of hope and optimism. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, Vol. 4, No. 6, p. 548–556.

Griva K., Joekes K. UK Teachers under Stress: Can We Predict Wellness On The Basis Of Characteristics Of The Teaching Job. Psychology and Health, 2003, Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 457–471.

Hannover B., Birkner N., Pohlmann C. Ideal selves and self-esteem in people with independent or interdependent self-construal. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2006, Vol. 36, p. 119–133.

Hansson K., Cederblad M. Sense of Coherence as a Meta-Theory for Salutogenic Family

Therapy. Journal of Family Psychotherapy,2004, Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 39–54.

Heath N., Brown A. E. Self-concept Differentiation and Depressive Symptomatology in Children. International Journal of Psychology, 1999, Vol. 34, No. 2, p. 95–105.

Jenkins S. M., Buboltz W. C., Schwartz J. P., Johnson P. Differentiation of Self And Psychosocial Development. Contemporary Family Therapy,2005, Vol. 27, No. 2, p. 251–261.

Kim-Prieto Ch., Diener E., Tamir M., Scollon Ch., Diener M. Integrating The Diverse Definitions Ofhappiness: A Time-Sequential Frameworkof Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2005, No. 6, p. 261–300.

Licht C., Chabot D. The Chabot Emotional Differentiation Scale: a Theoretically and Psychometrically Sound Instrument For Measuring Bowen’s Intrapsychic Aspect Of Differentiation. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 2006, Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 167–180.

McCarthy C., Lambert R., O’Donnell M. The Relation of Elementary Teachers Experience, Stress, and Coping Resources to Burnout Symptoms. The Elementary School Journal, 2009, Vol. 109, No. 3, p. 282–302.

Miller G. V. F., Travers C. J. Ethnicity and the experience of work: Job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. International Review of Psychiatry, 2005, Vol. 17, No. 5, p. 317–327.

Modin B., Otsberg V., Toivanen S., Sundell K. Psychosocial Working Conditions, School Sense of Coherence and Subjective Health Complaints. A Multilevel Analysis of Ninth Grade Pupils in the Stockholm Area. Journal of Adolescence, 2011, Vol. 34, p. 129–139.

Mruk Ch. J. The Psychology of Self-Esteem: A Potential Common Ground for Humanistic Positive Psychology and Positivistic Positive Psychology. The Humanistic Psychologist, 2008, Vol. 36, p. 43–158.

Murdock N. L., Gore P. A. Stress, Coping, and Differentiation Of Self: a Test Of Bowen Theory. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2004, Vol. 26, No. 3, p. 319–337.

Nurullah A. Gender Differences in Distress: The Mediating Influence of Life Stressors and Psychological Resources. Asian Social Science, 2010, Vol. 6, No. 5, p. 27–37.

Paim L. Definitions And Measurements Of Well-Being: A Review Of Literature, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 1995, No. 21, p. 297–309.

Peleg-Popko O. Bowen Theory: a Study Of Differentiation Of Self, Social Anxiety, and Physiological Symptoms. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2002, Vol. 24, No. 2, p. 335–349.

Pham P., Vinck P., Kinkodi D., Weinstein H. Sense of Coherence and Its Association With

Exposure to Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder,and Depression in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2010, Vol. 23, No. 3, p. 313–321.

Pisanti R., Gagliardi M., Razzino S., Bertini M. Occupational Stress and Wellness Among Italian Secondary School Teachers. Psychology and Health, 2003, Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 523–536.

Ritvanen T., Louhevaara V., Helin P., Halonen T., Hanninen O. Psychophysiological Stress in High School Teachers. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2003, Vol. 16, No. 3, p. 255–264.

Sarvimaki A. Well-being as being well – a Heideggerian look at well-being. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 2006, No. 1, p. 4–10.

Satir V. Revised edition, Science and Behavior books. In Conjoint Family Therapy, Polo Alto, California, 1967.

Sin N. L., Lyubomirsky S. Enhancing Well-Being and Alleviating Depressive Symptoms with Positive Psychology Interventions: A Practice-Friendly Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology: in Session, 2009, Vol. 65, No. 5, p. 467–487.

Skowron E. A., Stanley K. L., Shapiro M. D. A Longitudinal Perspective on Differentiation of Self, Interpersonal and Psychological Well-Being in Young Adulthood. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2009, Vol. 31, p. 3–18.

Skowron E. A. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging Among Persons of Color. Journal of Counseling and Development, 2004, Vol. 82, p. 447–456.

Skowron E. A., Dendy A. K. Differentiation of Self and Attachment in Adulthood: Relational Correlates of Effortful Control. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2004, Vol. 26, No. 3, p. 337–357.

Skowron E. A., Wester S. R., Azen R. Differentiation of Self Mediates College Stress and Adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 2004, Vol. 82, p. 69–80.

Skowron E. A., Holmes S. E., Sabatelli R. M. Deconstructing Differentiation: Self Regulation, Interdependent, Relating, And Well-Being in Adulthood. Contemporary Family Therapy, 2003, Vol. 25, No. 1, p. 111–120.

Skowron E. A., Friedlander M. L. The Differentiation of Self Inventory: Development and Initial Validation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1998, Vol. 45, No. 3, p. 235–246.

Srivastava A., Locke E. A. Dispositional Causes of Job Satisfaction: Seeking Complexity in Job As A Mediator. Academy Of Management Best Conference Paper, 2006, No. 1, p. 1–8.

Wang P., Lin P., Cao H. The Sources of Work Stress For Chinese High School Teachers. Social Behavior and Personality,2009, Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 459–466.

Wright J. Self-Soothing – A Recursive Intrapsychic and Relational Process: the Contribution of the Bowen Theory to the Process of Self-Soothing. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 1, p. 29–41.

Yong Z., Yue Y. Causes for Burnout Among Secondary and Elementary School Teachers and Preventive Strategies. Chinese Education and Society, 2007, Vol. 40, No. 5, p. 78–85.